Federal Law No. 488-FZ dated December 31, 2014 "On industrial policy in the Russian Federation" marked the industrial parks as one of the main forms of territorial industry development.
National standard GOST-R "Industrial parks" Requirements" defines an industrial park as a complex of immovable property objects managed by a specialized management company that:
A specialized management company may be a legal entity that manages establishment, development and functioning of the industrial park whose proceeds from the specified activity make up at least 80% from the total amount of realized products and services. At the same time, it cannot be a resident of the industrial park.
In its turn, a resident of the industrial park is an organization (independent businessman) that concluded an agreement with the specialized management company on the lease or purchase of a plot of land, building (or their parts) located within the industrial park, and that performs (or is going to perform) production activities in the territory of the park.
Industrial parks as the format of industrial infrastructure development have become very widespread in the world. The development of this branch started at the beginning of the 20th century in the leading European countries and the USA. It was then that division of industrial parks into two main types was formed.
According to the Geoinformation system of industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters of Russia, 155 existing and created industrial parks, as well as 35 industrial technology parks, were registered in Russia at the start of 2016:
The main share of industrial parks is located within three federal districts, Central, North-Western and Volga ones.
The leading positions are occupied by four regions: Moscow region, Republic of Tatarstan, Leningrad and Kaluga regions. 49 industrial parks were registered in their territory in 2015 (30% of all the Russian sites).
This is conditioned by a beneficial combination of a complex of factors. These include:
Industrial parks are flexible tools for realization of the tasks of developing the production of innovative industrial products and increasing products output with a high share of added value. Factors contributing to it:
Развитие производственной инфраструктуры в формате индустриальных парков — один из приоритетов промышленной политики в Российской Федерации. В этих целях, в 2014 году Минпромторгом России была разработана подпрограмма № 20 «Индустриальные парки» госпрограммы «Развитие промышленности и повышение ее конкурентоспособности». Ее ключевые целевые показатели:
Для их достижения Минпромторгом реализуется комплекс мер государственной поддержки, в числе которых:
Federal Law No. 488-FZ dated December 31, 2014 "On industrial policy in the Russian Federation" marked creation of industrial clusters as a new instrument of territorial industry development.
Industrial cluster is the total of subjects of activity in the sphere of industry (legal entities or independent businessmen – industrial cluster participants) related in the specific sphere due to territorial proximity and functional dependence, that manufacture industrial products and are locate din the territory of one or several Russian Federation constituents.
Methodical, organizational, expert, analytical and information support of an industrial cluster, as well as formation of a program for its development, is provided by a specialized industrial cluster organization, a commercial or non-commercial organization.
Each industrial cluster should have the necessary technological infrastructure, a complex of specialized buildings, structures and constructions, including:
Key peculiarities of the cluster – spreading innovations to the whole value chain and availability of a single logistic window for interaction with the external environment.
Production conditions within the cluster are created at the expense of a specially selected combination of natural and human resources, capital resources, physical, administrative, scientific and technological infrastructure. These conditions are the foundation of the cluster's specialization and the quality of its end products.
Related and auxiliary branches ensure implementation of innovations in the production line of spare parts and technological equipment, which makes the cluster companies more competitive.
At the same time, clusters creation should be based on the peculiarities of each region, its competitive advantages, as their simple copying will be inefficient. Development of clusters will make it possible to connect industry development in a particular region and large-scale country projects.
AT present, as part of cluster policy realization, RF Ministry of Industry and Trade works out organizational, legal and regulatory, as well as methodological approaches to stimulation of industrial clusters creation and development. The Russian Government Decree No. 779 dated July 31, 2015 defined the requirements for industrial clusters which claim to apply the state stimulation measures and establish the organizational procedures of confirming the industrial cluster status.
On January 28, 2016, the Russian Government issued Decree No. 41 to approve the rules of subsidies provision from the federal budget to industrial cluster participants to reimburse a part of expenses during realization of joint projects to manufacture industrial products of the cluster for the purposes of import phase-out. The Decree was prepared by RF Ministry of Industry and Trade in accordance with Federal Law No. 488-FZ dated December 31, 2014 "On industrial policy in the Russian Federation".
Subsidies will be provided following a selection if the industrial cluster project meets a number of criteria. In particular, by the fifth year from the start of realization, it should ensure 15-percent growth in the number of high-performance workplaces, and also achievement of one of the target indicators provided for by the rules. The key ones include reduction of expenses on buying spare parts from third-party organizations (including foreign manufacturers) and increase in the share of components of the cluster's finished products manufactured by the cluster participant organizations.
В соответствии с постановлением Правительства России № 709 от 29 июля 2014 года ключевым критерием, на основании которого городской округ, или городское поселение признается монопрофильным муниципальным образованием (моногородом) является наличие градообразующего предприятия — организации (или нескольких организаций):
Как правило, инфраструктура моногородов приспособлена под цели градообразующего предприятия и не предназначена для обслуживания диверсифицированной экономики.
В зависимости от социально-экономической ситуации моногорода могут быть отнесены к трем категориям, которые определены вышеназванным постановлением Правительства России.
В настоящее время в 62 регионах России насчитывается 319 моногородов. Из них 99 — моногорода с наиболее сложным социально-экономическим положением, которые расположены в 33 субъектах Российской Федерации.
Практические мероприятия по контролю состояния и поддержке моногородов сведены в Комплекс мероприятий по повышению инвестиционной привлекательности территорий моногородов (далее — Комплекс мероприятий), утвержденный Председателем Правительства России 19 августа 2014 года № 5307п-П16. В соответствии с ним:
В 2014 году была создана некоммерческая организация «Фонд развития моногородов», предметом деятельности которой являются:
Фондом развития моногородов заключено 17 генеральных соглашений с 11 регионами о сотрудничестве по развитию моногородов. В период
Эти меры государственной поддержки должны содействовать:
На территории 227 из 319 моногородов Российской Федерации расположены градообразующие предприятия сферы деятельности Минпромторга России. Министерством проводится ежеквартальный мониторинг состояния градообразующих предприятий на предмет оценки их текущего состояния, перспектив и возможного негативного влияния на общее состояние моногорода.
В соответствии с данными мониторинга на декабрь 2015 года к
Наибольшее количество градообразующих предприятий представлено отраслями:
At present, over one hundred priority investment projects are being realized in Russia, in accordance with the lists approved by the Russian Federation Government. Their main goal is to create new centers of social and economic development (points of regional economic growth) and a network of territorial production and tourist clusters which realize the competitive potential of the territories of federal districts.
RF Ministry of Industry and Trade ensures monitoring over the realization of 30 high-priority investment projects related to the Ministry's competence, including:
4 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the Far East Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on May 30, 2013 No. 3006p-P16;
6 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the South Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on August 30, 2011 No. 4447p-P16;
4 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the Volga Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on February 14, 2011 No. 565p-P16;
4 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the Central Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on June 8, 2011 No. 2696p-P16;
5 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the North-Western Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on February 7, 2012 No. 476p-P16;
7 projects from the List of priority investment projects in the Ural Federal District, approved by the Russian Federation Government on November 10, 2011 No. 5724p-P16.
Geoinformation system of industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters (GISIP) was developed in 2014 — 2015 by the order of RF Ministry of Industry and Trade.
The aim of GISIP creation is to present full information on designed, created and functioning industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters, their provision with industrial, municipal-ad-energy, and transport-and-logistic infrastructure to potential residents and investors, as well as the wide public, on the basis of the world's best practices of investment projects presentation.
Thanks to integration of high-quality technical solutions on one platform, well thought-of methodology of working with information and intuitive interface, the system simplifies the process of economic conditions evaluation for investors and residents to realize projects, ensures convenience of analyzing sites for productions location. The materials of the main GISIP sections are available for the users that speak the world's most widespread languages: Russian, English, Chinese and Spanish.
GISIP format is based on interactive maps of the Russian Federation: satellite, geographical, cadastral ones, with information on the regions and their transport and logistics infrastructure, sites of industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters connected with them by layers.
While working with the public section of the system, each visitor can:
Thus, GISIP provides a potential investor or resident with considerable amount of information in one window that is necessary to make a decision to select the region or a particular site which best suits the requirements for production project realization.
The information of all the industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters of Russia will be entered into GISIP in 2016. Further on, it will be updated with direct participation of representatives of industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters that have access keys to the relevant sections of the system.
In 2015, the organizing committee of the All-Russian Internet award "Prometey" recognized the Geoinformation system of industrial parks, technology parks and industrial clusters as a winner in the Power and State nomination as Russia's best Internet project in the past year.
In the long term, the result of GISIP will include not only presentation of information on the industrial infrastructure but also assistance in increasing transparency for investors and investment attractiveness of regions on an international scale.